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Operation CNC Machining
When a CNC system is activated, the desired cuts are programmed into the software and dictated to corresponding tools and machinery, which carry out the dimensional tasks as specified, much like a robot.
Position control is determined through an open-loop or closed-loop system. With the former, the signaling runs in a single direction between the controller and motor. With a closed-loop system, the controller is capable of receiving feedback, which makes error correction possible. Thus, a closed-loop system can rectify irregularities in velocity and position.
In CNC machining, movement is usually directed across X and Y axes. The tool, in turn, is positioned and guided via stepper or servo motors, which replicate exact movements as determined by the G-code. If the force and speed are minimal, the process can be run via open-loop control. For everything else, closed-loop control is necessary to ensure the speed, consistency and accuracy required for industrial applications, such as metalwork.
CNC Machining is Fully Automated
In today’s CNC protocols, the production of parts via pre-programmed software is mostly automated. The dimensions for a given part are set into place with computer-aided design(CAD) software and then converted into an actual finished product with computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software.
Any given work piece could necessitate a variety of machine tools, such as drills and cutters. In order to accommodate these needs, many of today’s machines combine several different functions into one cell. Alternately, an installation might consist of several machines and a set of robotic hands that transfer parts from one application to another, but with everything controlled by the same program. Regardless of the setup, the CNC process allows for consistency in parts production that would be difficult, if not impossible, to replicate manually.